October 7, 2022

InsiderPlays

Creating Possibilities

Public sexual harassment consultation – GOV.UK

1. Context

The shocking events of 2021 have rightly brought violence against women and girls to the very forefront of public attention. The Call for Evidence for the Government’s Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy attracted more than 180,000 responses, an extraordinary figure for a government consultation. Most of these were from individual women, very often describing their own experiences of domestic abuse and rape. But they also included other experiences which were harrowing for the women involved; experiences which it is wholly unacceptable for a woman to undergo. These included, for example, being verbally abused or shouted at in the street, being followed, receiving obscene gestures, or being touched by a stranger. These are often known as ‘public sexual harassment’, or ‘street harassment’.

In the nationally representative survey of 2,000 people which formed part of the Call for Evidence, 44% of respondents felt that public sexual harassment was happening more often in England and Wales than five years before (including 18% who felt that it was happening much more often) compared to 10% who felt that it was happening less and 35% who felt that there had been no change.

In May 2022 the Office for National Statistics published statistics relating to perceptions of safety and experiences of harassment, based on the Opinions and Lifestyle Survey conducted between 16 February and 13 March 2022.[footnote 1] It found that:

  • One in two women and one in six men felt unsafe walking alone after dark in a quiet street near their home.

  • 45% of women and 18% of men felt unsafe walking alone after dark in a busy public place.

  • 82% of women and 42% of men felt unsafe walking alone after dark in a park or other open space.

  • One in two women aged between 16 and 34 years experienced one form of harassment in the previous 12 months, with 38% of women aged between 16 and 34 having experienced catcalls, whistles, unwanted sexual comments or jokes, and 25% having felt that they were being followed.

  • 54% of people who reported feeling unsafe during the day, and 46% who reported feeling unsafe after dark, had altered their behaviour, as a result, in the previous month.

These figures are shocking. Yet numbers alone cannot capture the fear that a woman is likely to feel when she is verbally abused in the street or followed on a dark night. In the past year and more, women from all walks of life have felt empowered to share how these experiences have felt for them and how they have impacted on their lives. This whole of society response is leading to real social change, in which government is playing its full part.

2. Non-legislative actions to tackle public sexual harassment

We published the Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy in July 2021[footnote 2], followed by the complementary Domestic Abuse Plan in March 2022[footnote 3]. These aim to deliver wholesale changes in society’s response to violence against women and girls, through pursuing perpetrators, supporting victims, prioritising prevention and strengthening the underlying system. They recognise that public sexual harassment cannot be seen in isolation, and through actions such as our investment into research about what works in tackling violence against women and girls, our support for teachers to deliver the Relationships, Sex and Health curriculum, and our supporting the appointment of Deputy Chief Constable Maggie Blyth as the first ever National Police Lead for Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls, we aim to tackle the whole range of violence against women and girls crimes.

A note on terminology: The term ‘violence against women and girls’ refers to acts of violence or abuse that we know disproportionately affect women and girls. Crimes and behaviour covered by this term include rape and other sexual offences, domestic abuse, stalking, ‘honour’-based abuse (including female genital mutilation, forced marriage, and ‘honour’ killings), as well as many others, including offences committed online. While we use the term ‘violence against women and girls’, this always refers to all victims of any of these offences.

But we also recognise that specific robust actions are needed to tackle public sexual harassment. Since the publication of the Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy the Government has taken several actions to tackle public sexual harassment:

  • In September 2021, we launched a pilot tool, StreetSafe[footnote 4], which enables the public to anonymously report areas where they feel unsafe, so that local authorities and the police can take practical steps in response, such as improved CCTV and street lighting, as well as deploying an increased police presence. Around 19,000 reports have been made to date, which have enabled the police to make more targeted patrols, increase their presence and identify new hotspots.

  • In October 2021, we announced awards of £23.5 million to Police and Crime Commissioners and local authorities under Round 3 of the Safer Streets Fund[footnote 5], to make public spaces safer for everyone through projects to help women and girls feel safer on the streets. Most of the projects involved activity to deter offending such as increased CCTV surveillance, as well as changing attitudes towards violence against women and girls. For example, the £550,000 Safer Streets project in Sussex included a campaign with the tagline “Do the Right Thing”, which sought to challenge inappropriate behaviour on the part of some men.

  • In November 2021, we announced the results of our separate, £5 million Safety of Women at Night fund[footnote 6]. 22 projects were awarded funding to deliver initiatives designed to improve the safety of women in public spaces at night, including in the night-time economy. For example, we funded West Yorkshire Combined Authority to launch a Train Safety campaign to promote access to an online link with safety information for public transport users, such as bus tracking, so that there is no longer a need to stand at a bus stop alone waiting for a delayed bus.

  • In December 2021, the College of Policing published a new, accessible toolkit for police officers[footnote 7], advising them about the criminal offences, civil orders and other preventative strategies which they can use in relation to different types of public sexual harassment.

  • In March 2022, we launched our ‘Enough’ communication campaign across England and Wales. The campaign aims to target and challenge the harmful behaviours that exist within wider society, educate young people about healthy relationships and consent, and ensure victims can recognise abuse and receive support. The campaign seeks to empower bystanders to intervene safely, to encourage perpetrators to question their own behaviour, and to encourage victims to seek support. It has run across TV, billboards, social media, radio and a website. While it has covered a range of harms involving violence against women and girls, public sexual harassment has been one of its main areas of focus, and the first segment of the TV advertisement portrayed a young man harassing a young woman in a public place, and being challenged about his behaviour by his friends. Early indications are that the campaign is delivering the desired impact with target audiences.

  • In March 2022, we launched Round 4 of the Safer Streets Fund[footnote 8], which combines and expands upon previous rounds of Safer Streets and the Safety of Women at Night funding, targeting neighbourhood crime and violence against women and girls in public places, as well as including anti-social behaviour as a primary focus for the first time.

  • The Crown Prosecution Service will soon publish updates to its legal guidance on public order offences to make clear to prosecutors how public order offences can be used to tackle public sexual harassment.

We believe that, together, these many actions will reduce the prevalence of public sexual harassment, support police and prosecutors to address it where it does happen, and make a profound difference to the lives of many women and girls.

3. The possibility of a new criminal offence

We recognise, though, that many people would like us to go further, with many people suggesting that the Government create a new criminal offence specifically targeting public sexual harassment. In the Tackling Violence Against Women and Girls Strategy, we confirmed that we were looking carefully at where there may be gaps in the existing law and how a specific offence for public sexual harassment might address those. The strategy noted that this is a complex area, and that it is important that we take the time to ensure that any potential legislation is proportionate and reasonably defined. (We also need to ensure, in creating any criminal offence, that it is drafted so as to be enforceable. Any new offence needs to enable law enforcement agencies to tackle this behaviour, rather than create confusion or additional evidential burdens for investigators and prosecutors.)

We have also paid close attention to the comments of the Law Commission in its report into hate crime laws of December 2021.[footnote 9] The report stated that it is worth considering whether a bespoke public sexual harassment offence could represent a better targeted response to public sexual harassment than hate crime legislation (the subject of its report). The Law Commission noted that such an offence went beyond its terms of reference, and as such, that it had not given the issue detailed consideration or consulted on its potential scope. The report therefore recommended that the Government undertake a review of the need for a specific offence of public sexual harassment, and what form any such offence should take.

A note: we refer throughout this consultation to public sexual harassment experienced by women and girls. Most victims of public sexual harassment are female. But men and boys can also be victims. The draft offences we include are not sex-specific and could be used to protect both women and men. We very much welcome responses to this consultation from men and boys, as well as from women and girls.

4. Existing legislation

There are existing criminal offences which can be used in cases of public sexual harassment. An offence of harassment already exists under section 2 of the Protection from Harassment Act 1997 (the 1997 Act). A person who pursues a course of conduct which amounts to harassment of another person, and which they know or ought to know amounts to harassment, can face up to six months in prison or an unlimited fine. The 1997 Act states that harassing a person includes alarming them or causing them distress. It also states that a course of conduct is either doing something more than once towards one other person or doing something at least once towards more than one other person.

Section 4 of the 1997 Act created an offence of putting someone in fear of violence. It provides that a person whose course of conduct causes another person to fear, on at least two occasions, that violence will be used against them, is guilty of an offence if they know or ought to know that their course of conduct will cause the other person to fear that result on each of those occasions. A person found guilty of this offence can face up to ten years in prison.

This means that, in both cases, a single act directed towards a single person is not covered by the offence. The same applies to the two separate offences of stalking created by the 1997 Act.

The Public Order Act 1986 (the 1986 Act) created three offences which are relevant here and which can be used to tackle single acts:

  • Section 4 – fear or provocation of violence – applies when someone uses threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour towards another person (or distributes or displays to them a visible representation with the same effect) which is threatening, abusive or insulting, and where:

    • the defendant intends the complainant to believe that immediate unlawful violence will be used against them or someone else, or intends that violence by the complainant or someone else be provoked; or

    • the complainant is likely to believe that such violence will be used or provoked in this way.

  • Section 4A – intentional harassment, alarm or distress – applies when someone uses threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour towards another person (or displays to them a visible representation with the same effect), where the defendant’s intention is to cause the complainant harassment, alarm or distress, and that is indeed the effect produced.

A person convicted under section 4 or 4A of the 1986 Act can face up to six months in prison or an unlimited fine.

  • Section 5 – harassment, alarm or distress – applies when a person uses threatening or abusive words or behaviour, or disorderly behaviour (or displays a visible representation with the same effect) within the hearing or sight of a person who is likely to be caused harassment, alarm or distress as a result.

A person convicted under section 5 can face a fine of up to £1,000.

The Government considers that there is a range of types of public sexual harassment behaviour which could be caught by these offences. These include persistently staring at someone, cornering or isolating someone, making obscene gestures or remarks at a person, or following them in a vehicle. When the 1986 Act was drawn up these were not the types of behaviour which it was envisaged that it would cover. But if the terms of an Act encompass particular behaviour, the fact that there were other reasons for creating the Act does not prevent its being used for that behaviour. The Government considers that it can – depending on the particular circumstances of the case – be used for these practices, and the CPS is clear that the 1986 Act can be used to prosecute such behaviour.

Other criminal offences can – again, depending on the particular circumstances of the case – be used to tackle other types of public sexual harassment behaviour:

  • Section 3 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 – sexual assault – covers situations where a person intentionally touches another person in a sexual way, where the complainant does not consent to being touched and the defendant does not reasonably believe that the complainant consents. A person convicted of sexual assault can be sentenced to a maximum of ten years in prison. This offence can be used in relation to types of public sexual harassment where physical contact is involved, such as ‘groping’.

  • Section 66 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 – exposure – covers situations where a person intentionally exposes their genitals, with the intention that someone will see them and be caused alarm or distress. A person convicted of this can be sentenced to a maximum of two years in prison.

  • Section 39 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988, covering the common law offence of battery, can also be used in relation to behaviour involving some physical contact. The physical contact need not be sexual.

5. The purpose of this consultation

The Government’s view is therefore that behaviour amounting to public sexual harassment is already covered by existing criminal offences (subject to the individual circumstances of the case). We know that others take a different view, and we respect that. The Government would not seek to create a new offence if it would create overlap with new offences (because, for example, this would create uncertainty and additional work for police and prosecutors). Based on our own analysis that public sexual harassment behaviour is already covered by existing offences, we could not therefore propose creating a wholly new offence.

However, there is an option of adding to an existing offence, rather than creating a new one. It would be possible to provide that if a person commits an existing offence and does so on the basis of the complainant’s sex, then they could receive a higher sentence than if they had committed the offence without that motivation. This would avoid the problems which arise with overlapping offences. We present two possible models of such an offence in this consultation.

The Government has not, however, made a decision on whether there should be such a new offence. Even though a legislative solution may be possible, it does not necessarily mean that it is the right policy course. It may be that existing criminal offences (including ensuring that the police are fully confident in using them) and non-legislative measures are a better way to tackle public sexual harassment, and although, as set out earlier, we have taken several non-legislative actions, it may be that there are others which we could take too.

In this consultation, we are therefore consulting on the following issues:

  • The principle of whether there should be a new law specifically covering public sexual harassment;

  • If there were to be such a new law, whether one of the two options we set out would be the correct model for it; and

  • Whether there are additional non-legislative actions which the Government should take (either in addition to or instead of a new offence).

We include the two options for a possible new offence for two reasons. First, we think that showing what a new offence might look like will help make the issues of principle clearer to respondents and may help respondents to make the most informed comments. Second, it would not make sense to run two consultation exercises – one on the principle of a new offence, and the second on its nature. If the Government is minded, in the light of the consultation responses, to create a new offence, then it will already have responses to help inform its decision on what that new offence might look like. If the Government is not minded to create a new offence, in light of the consultation responses, then the issue of the nature of such an offence would fall away.

Those respondents who do not support the creation of a new offence may therefore choose either not to respond to those questions which ask about the nature of any new offence, or to respond to them on the basis that this is what they would like any new offence to look like if one were nonetheless to be introduced. We will give close consideration to all responses received. It is also possible that any new offence might look different to the two models presented, if the responses received indicate that an alternative model would be more effective.

Similarly, when we ask about additional non-legislative actions which the Government might take, we welcome comments both from respondents who do not favour the creation of a new offence and who see additional non-legislative actions as an alternative to it, and also from respondents who do favour the creation of a new offence, but who would wish to see additional non-legislative actions too.

We refer in this document to ‘public sexual harassment’, as it is a commonly recognised term. However, that term can imply a sexual motivation, and as we set out below, the possible models for a new offence involve any behaviour motivated by the other person’s sex, even if not motivated by sexual gratification. ‘Sex-based harassment’ would therefore be a legally more accurate term.

In both cases we present the text of the potential new offence, followed by a plain English explanation of its content. However, as ever in the interpretation of the legislation, the text of the (potential) offence should be preferred as the authoritative description.

6. Option 1

Intentional harassment, alarm or distress on account of sex

(1) A person (A) commits an offence under this section if—

(a) A commits an offence under section 4A of the Public Order Act 1986

(intentional harassment, alarm or distress), and

(b) A carried out the conduct referred to in section 4A(1) of that Act

because of the relevant person’s sex.

In this subsection “the relevant person” means the person to whom A intended to cause harassment, alarm or distress.

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(b) it does not matter whether or not A carried out the conduct referred to in section 4A(1) of the Public Order Act 1986 for the purposes of sexual gratification.

(3) For the purposes of subsection (1)(b) it does not matter whether or not A also carried out the conduct referred to in section 4A(1) of the Public Order Act 1986 because of any other factor not mentioned in subsection (1)(b).

(4) A person who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable—

(a) on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding the general limit in a magistrates’ court, to a fine or to both;

(b) on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years, to a fine, or to both.

(5) If, on the trial on indictment of a person charged with an offence under subsection (1), the jury find the person not guilty of the offence charged, they may find the person guilty of the basic offence mentioned in that provision.

(6) References in this section to a person (A) carrying out conduct because of another person’s (B’s) sex include references to A doing so because of B’s presumed sex.

Plain English description

Option 1 would create a new offence which would apply when a person commits an offence under section 4A of the Public Order Act 1986, and does so because of the complainant’s sex. Their having committed the offence because of the complainant’s sex would mean that the defendant could receive a longer sentence than if that had not been their motivation.

Our initial model for this was the offences in sections 29-32 of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 (racially or religiously aggravated assaults, criminal damage, public order offences, or harassment, respectively). These apply when someone has committed an offence under the ‘ordinary’ offences of assault, criminal damage etc. and the act was motivated by the defendant’s hostility towards the complainant’s membership of a racial or religious group or by hostility towards that group as a whole. The person could then receive a higher sentence than they would have done had they been convicted under the corresponding ‘ordinary’ offence. These are part of hate crime legislation. (In addition, the Sentencing Act (2020) already provides a court with the ability to enhance a sentence against an ‘ordinary’ offence, within the existing maximum penalty, for hate crimes which target a victim on grounds of race, religion, sexual orientation, disability or transgender identity.)

Option 1 has crucial differences to sections 29-32, though, in particular that it is not necessary for the defendant to be motivated by hostility on the basis of the complainant’s sex. Public sexual harassment will sometimes be based on such hostility, but not always, and this is one of the reasons why the Law Commission concluded that sex should not be added to hate crime legislation, and why the Government agrees with that conclusion. Instead, Option 1 depends on behaviour done ‘because of’ the victim’s sex. As such, Option 1 would not represent a hate crime offence and, if enacted, would not form part of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998.

Option 1 takes as its starting point behaviour which falls under section 4A of the Public Order Act 1986.[footnote 10] Section 4A:

  • applies when someone uses threatening, abusive or insulting words or behaviour, or disorderly behaviour, towards another person, or if they display any writing, sign or other visible representation which is threatening, abusive or insulting towards that person;

  • requires that the defendant’s intention was to cause the complainant harassment, alarm or distress;

  • requires that the complainant or another person was caused harassment, alarm or distress;

  • can apply irrespective of where the defendant and/or the complainant are physically located, unless both of them are in a ‘dwelling’. Elsewhere in the Public Order Act 1986 a ‘dwelling’ is defined as “a structure or part of a structure occupied as a person’s home or as other living accommodation (whether the occupation is separate or shared with others) but [which] does not include any part not so occupied, and for this purpose ‘structure’ includes a tent, caravan, vehicle, vessel or other temporary or movable structure.” This means that the parties might be, for example, on a street, in an open space, on public transport, in a public building or in a workplace. Or one party might be in a dwelling and the other party not – for example a person shouting abuse through the open window of their home to a person on the street outside.

  • provides for two defences, meaning circumstances in which the person would not be committing the offence. The first is if the perpetrator was in a dwelling and did not realise that their actions would be heard or seen by a person outside that or any other dwelling. The second is if the conduct of the person who did the actions was reasonable.

Section 4A is summary only, meaning that it can be tried only in the magistrates’ court, not in the Crown Court. This means that the maximum sentences are six months[footnote 11] in prison, a fine or both. It is in the sentencing that Option 1 differs to existing section 4A. Option 1 provides that, if the defendant committed the offence because of the sex of the person to whom their action was directed, then they can also be tried on indictment – i.e. in the Crown Court. This means that they could receive a maximum sentence of two years in prison.

Option 1 is clear that:

  • the defendant does not have to be motivated by the desire for sexual gratification, although he or she might be. It is sufficient that the behaviour is done because of the other person’s sex;

  • the defendant might have additional motivations, not related to the victim’s sex; and

  • it is the sex which the defendant presumes the other person to have which is important, even if in fact they are wrong.

The offence also provides that if the heightened test of Option 1 is not met, the person could still be tried under the ‘ordinary’ section 4A offence if the terms of that offence were met.

7. Option 2

Intentional harassment, alarm or distress on account of sex

(1) A person (A) commits an offence under this section if—

(a) A commits an offence under section 4A of the Public Order Act 1986

(intentional harassment, alarm or distress), and

(b) A carried out the conduct referred to in section 4A(1) of that Act

because of the relevant person’s sex.

In this subsection “the relevant person” means the person to whom A intended to cause harassment, alarm or distress.

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1)(b), the following are examples of conduct that might, in particular circumstances, be carried out because of a person’s sex—

(a) following a person;

(b) making an obscene or aggressive comment towards a person;

(c) making an obscene or offensive gesture towards a person;

(d) obstructing a person making a journey;

(e) driving or riding a vehicle slowly near to a person making a journey.

(3) For the purposes of subsection (1)(b) it does not matter whether or not A carried out the conduct referred to in section 4A(1) of the Public Order Act 1986 for the purposes of sexual gratification.

(4) For the purposes of subsection (1)(b) it does not matter whether or not A also carried out the conduct referred to in section 4A(1) of the Public Order Act 1986 because of any other factor not mentioned in subsection (1)(b).

(5) A person who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable—

(a) on summary conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding the general limit in a magistrates’ court, to a fine or to both;

(b) on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years, to a fine, or to both.

(6) If, on the trial on indictment of a person charged with an offence under subsection (1), the jury find the person not guilty of the offence charged, they may find the person guilty of the basic offence mentioned in that provision.

(7) References in this section to a person (A) carrying out conduct because of another person’s (B’s) sex include references to A doing so because of B’s presumed sex.

(8) In this section “vehicle” includes—

(a) a mechanically propelled vehicle,

(b) a pedal cycle (whether electrically assisted or not), and

(c) a form of transport which is not mechanically propelled.

Plain English description

Option 2 takes Option 1 as its starting point, but adds one key additional element. It includes a list of types of threatening, abusive, insulting or disorderly behaviour which might in particular circumstances be carried out because of a person’s sex. The list is illustrative rather than exhaustive, and types of behaviour not included in it could be covered by the offence. It is therefore not legally essential to include it. But it may help to clarify the purpose of the offence to people who might report it and to parties within the criminal justice system.

The list comprises:

  • following someone;

  • making an obscene or aggressive comment towards someone;

  • making an obscene or offensive gesture towards someone;

  • obstructing a person who is making a journey (sometimes known as “cornering” them); or

  • driving or riding a vehicle slowly near to a person who is making a journey.

A vehicle is defined as a mechanically propelled vehicle (for example, a car), a pedal cycle (whether electrically assisted or not), or a form of transport which is not mechanically propelled (for example, a skateboard).

These types of behaviour all involve actions by the defendant when they are in the physical presence of the complainant. Like the existing section 4A offence, Options 1 and 2 do not exclude online behaviour, and could be used to prosecute it. But this is not the behaviour which they are designed to counter. There are other offences which can tackle unacceptable behaviour online, and we are asking Parliament to create further offences through the Online Safety Bill.

8. Consultation questions

1. How widespread a problem do you think that public sexual harassment is in this country?

2. Do you think that there should be a specific criminal offence of public sexual harassment?

3. If you do think that there should be a specific offence of public sexual harassment, would this be because (tick all that apply):

  • It would criminalise behaviour which is not already criminal.

  • It would raise awareness that these behaviours are illegal.

  • It would prevent people engaging in these behaviours.

  • It would encourage more people to report to the police.

  • It would make the law on public sexual harassment clearer to police and others.

  • Other (please specify)

4. If you think that a new law would criminalise behaviours which are not already criminal, please specify which behaviours.

5. If you do not think that there should be a specific offence of public sexual harassment, would this be because (tick all that apply):

  • There are already offences that address these behaviours.

  • These behaviours should not be criminalised.

  • These behaviours are better managed through non-legislative actions.

  • It would bring other negative results (if so, please specify which ones)

Questions 6 – 13 would apply if there were to be a new criminal offence of public sexual harassment. We welcome responses both from those who do support and from those who do not support a new offence of public sexual harassment.

6. Would Option 1 be a viable model?

  • Yes

  • No (please specify why)

  • Don’t know

7. Would Option 2 be a viable model?

  • Yes

  • No (please specify why)

  • Don’t know

8. If you consider that both Option 1 and Option 2 would be viable models, do you think either option would be more effective? Please explain why.

  • Yes (Option 1 would be more effective)

  • Yes (Option 2 would be more effective)

  • No

  • Don’t know

  • N/A – I do not consider that either Option 1 or Option 2 would be a viable model

9. Do you think there is a better way to construct a public sexual harassment offence than either Option 1 or Option 2?

10. Noting that the list of example behaviours in Option 2 is not exhaustive, do you think that it captures the most common types of public sexual harassment behaviour?

If No, which additional ones would you include?

11. Do you consider that any of the example behaviours in Option 2 should be excluded? If so, please state why.

  • Following a person;

  • Making an obscene or aggressive comment towards a person;

  • Making an obscene or offensive gesture towards a person;

  • Obstructing a person making a journey;

  • Driving or riding a vehicle slowly near to a person making a journey.

  • None of them should be excluded.

  • Don’t know

12. Do you consider that the maximum sentence included is the correct one?

13. Do you have any other comments on Options 1 and 2?

14. Do you think that introducing a new offence of public sexual harassment would have implications for the resources of the police and the criminal justice system?

15. Do you think that the non-legislative actions which the Government and other statutory authorities have been taking to tackle public sexual harassment – as set out in section 2 of this document – are sufficient? We welcome answers both from those who think that there should be a new criminal offence of public sexual harassment and from those who do not.

16. If you think that those actions are not sufficient, which additional non-legislative actions do you think that the Government and other statutory authorities should take?

17. In particular, are there any other non-legislative actions which the Government should take to tackle public sexual harassment which takes place in the night-time economy?

9. How to Respond

This consultation closes at 23:59 on 1 September 2022.

The best way to respond is through this survey: https://www.homeofficesurveys.homeoffice.gov.uk/s/LFKIWD/

However, you can also e-mail responses to [email protected] You can also use this e-mail address to ask any questions about the consultation.